CN108667011B  MMC rapid equivalent modeling method considering starting link  Google Patents
MMC rapid equivalent modeling method considering starting link Download PDFInfo
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 CN108667011B CN108667011B CN201810480439.7A CN201810480439A CN108667011B CN 108667011 B CN108667011 B CN 108667011B CN 201810480439 A CN201810480439 A CN 201810480439A CN 108667011 B CN108667011 B CN 108667011B
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Classifications

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02J—CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
 H02J3/00—Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02J—CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
 H02J3/00—Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
 H02J3/36—Arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks via a hightension dc link

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02M—APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
 H02M1/00—Details of apparatus for conversion

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02J—CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
 H02J2203/00—Indexing scheme relating to details of circuit arrangements for AC mains or AC distribution networks
 H02J2203/20—Simulating, e g planning, reliability check, modelling or computer assisted design [CAD]

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
 Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
 Y02E60/00—Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
 Y02E60/60—Arrangements for transfer of electric power between AC networks or generators via a high voltage DC link [HVCD]
Abstract
The invention provides an MMC (modular multilevel converter) quick equivalent modeling method considering a starting link, which is mainly used for carrying out equivalence on submodule voltage when a direct current power transmission system based on an MMC is started, and establishing submodule voltage equivalence under various working conditions so as to establish a quick equivalent model of the MMC. The method mainly comprises the following steps: (1) determining an equivalent circuit topology of the MMC submodule; (2) determining equivalent circuit parameters of the submodules in a normal working state; (3) determining equivalent controlled voltage and equivalent resistance of a submodule of a starting link; (4) deducing a single bridge arm Thevenin equivalent circuit of the MMC, and constructing a backtoback power transmission simulation system based on the MMC by using the bridge arm equivalent circuit. According to the invention, by equivalent starting links of the MMC submodules, the MMC circuit structure is simplified, the simulation precision is improved, the coincidence degree of the simulation result of the model and a detailed model is higher, and the simulation calculation time is effectively reduced on the premise of not sacrificing the simulation precision.
Description
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of power system simulation, in particular to an MMC rapid equivalence modeling method considering a starting link.
Background
Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are widely used in the field of Highvoltage directcurrent (HVDC), and have significant advantages in the application of acdc conversion of an electric power system due to the characteristics of convenience in capacity expansion, low harmonic content, small switching loss, low voltage stress and the like. With more and more MMCHVDC projects being put into operation in domestic power systems, the method has very important significance for establishing a model simulation analysis based on engineering practice for MMCHVDC, analyzing fault characteristics and the like, and provides basis for protection setting calculation and the like.
The detailed model has long simulation running time and large calculation amount, so that the establishment of the rapid electromagnetic transient model is necessary. The existing research has a mean value modelingbased method, the bridge arm is equivalent integrally, the external characteristics of the converter are researched by neglecting the characteristics of a submodule, the simulation rate of an electromagnetic transient model is improved by the method, and the internal characteristics of the converter such as charging and discharging of the submodule cannot be considered. The method for carrying out equivalent modeling on the submodule by adopting the Thevenin southern method is a mature research method capable of reflecting the internal characteristics of the converter. The method has the advantages that a learner performs Thevenin equivalence on the whole bridge arm on the premise of simplifying the submodules, the modeling method can accelerate the operation of simulation on the premise of ensuring the modeling accuracy, and the response of a single submodule cannot be analyzed due to the fact that the characteristics of the submodules, such as voltage, are packaged in the equivalent bridge arm module.
Some researchers put forward a model for carrying out Thevenin equivalence on a single submodule, and then the bridge arm submodule models are overlapped to simulate the whole bridge arm, however, model transformation of the submodules in other working modes in the processes of submodule locking, system starting and the like is not fully considered in the model. Later researchers adopt Thevenin's theorem to carry out integral equivalent modeling, but do not research the starting link of the MMCHVDC system and well simulate the precharging process in the locking environment. Considering that the stable starting of the system is a key link for ensuring the safe operation of the system, the equivalent mode of the starting link is added on the basis of thevenin equivalent modeling, and an equivalent model which can be used for engineering practical research under various conditions of normal, fault, locking, starting and submodule charging and discharging of an MMCHVDC system is provided.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provides an MMC rapid equivalent modeling method considering a starting link, wherein an MMC equivalent model suitable for starting, normal operation and fault states is established by uniformly expressing submodule voltages under different working conditions, and the simulation operation speed is increased on the premise of ensuring the simulation accuracy.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
a quick equivalent modeling method of MMC considering a starting link is characterized in that: the method is used for establishing a rapid electromagnetic transient equivalent model containing multiple working conditions (starting, normal working, locking and the like) aiming at two doubleend MMCHVDC systems connected in a backtoback mode, wherein the MMC converter topology is a threephase sixbridge arm structure, each bridge arm comprises a plurality of halfbridge submodules, each halfbridge submodule consists of two IGBTs and a capacitor, an emitting electrode of the IGBT1 is connected with a collecting electrode of the IGBT2, a positive electrode of the capacitor is connected with a collecting electrode of the IGBT1, and a negative electrode of the capacitor is connected with an emitting electrode of the IGBT2, and the:
1) under a normal working state, carrying out Thevenin equivalence on the halfbridge submodule, and regarding the parallel structure of each IGBT and each diode as a switch resistor;
2) determining the operation parameters of a halfbridge submodule, wherein R1 is the equivalent resistance of an IGBT1, when the submodule is put into use, the IGBT1 is conducted, and R1 is a small resistance RON close to 0; when the submodule is cut off, the IGBT1 is turned off, and R1 is an offstate resistor R_{OFF}(ii) a For the equivalent resistor R2 of the IGBT2, in the switching process of the submodule, the switching function of the IGBT2 is opposite to that of the IGBT1, and the resistance value change of the equivalent resistor R2 is also opposite;
3) the equivalent results are sorted to obtain an expression of an equivalent controlled voltage source and an equivalent resistor under a normal working state, wherein the resistance value of the equivalent resistor is determined according to the equivalent principle;
4) similar to the normal working state, considering an equivalent circuit of a starting link, enabling the capacitance voltage of the starting link to be equivalent to a controllable voltage source, when a capacitor is charged, the port voltage of each bridge arm submodule of the MMC is the capacitance voltage of the bridge arm submodule, when current flows through the submodule reversely so that the submodule is in a holding state, the current bypasses the capacitor through D2, and at the moment, the port voltage of the submodule is 0, so that the expression of the port voltage of the submodule under the starting link is obtained;
5) and integrating the voltage equivalence of the submodule ports in the normal working state and the starting link, and connecting a plurality of submodule equivalent circuits in a single bridge arm in series to obtain a bridge arm equivalent circuit, namely an equivalent model of the MMC bridge arm.
Further, the halfbridge submodule circuit in step 2) is composed of two switch resistors and an equivalent controlled source, the switch resistors are respectively used for replacing switch tubes, the equivalent controlled source is used for replacing submodule capacitors, and the determination principle of the switch resistors is as follows: switching function S_{pi}1, switch resistance R_{1}Is a value R close to 0_{ON}When the upper bridge arm submodule is cut off, the switching function S_{pi}0, switch resistance R_{1}A resistance value R of one megaohm_{OFF}Switch resistance R_{2}Then, in contrast, the switch resistance is expressed as follows:
furthermore, the equivalent circuit of the halfbridge submodule is further equivalent to a form of a controlled voltage source and a resistor which are connected in series, and the equivalent controlled voltage v under the normal operation condition_{peqi1}And an equivalent resistance R_{eqi}Expressed as:
wherein v is_{pci1}And (t) is the submodule capacitor voltage in normal operation.
Further, the equivalent circuit of the starting link is considered in the step 4) to obtain the port voltage v of the halfbridge submodule of the starting link_{pi2}(t) is:
wherein the sign function
v_{pci2}And (t) is the capacitor voltage of the submodule in the starting link.
Further, the voltage of the port of the MMC submodule considering the starting link is uniformly expressed as:
the bridge arm voltage can be expressed as:
wherein, blk represents whether the system is locked, when the system normally operates, blk is 1, and when the system is locked, blk is 0;
connecting a plurality of submodules in the bridge arm in series to form a bridge arm equivalent circuit to obtain an equivalent model of the bridge arm, wherein the voltage equivalent value v of the upper bridge arm equivalent circuit_{p}Comprises the following steps:
the invention provides an MMC equivalent modeling method considering various working conditions, which is characterized in that a submodule is expressed into an equivalent voltage source and an equivalent resistor by using the equivalent circuit method, the voltage of the MMC submodule under various working conditions of starting, running and locking is uniformly expressed, an equivalent circuit model suitable for various working conditions is established, the simulation result of the model is higher in coincidence degree with a detailed model, the number of system nodes and the operation amount are reduced in the process of simulation calculation, the speed and the efficiency of simulation calculation are improved on the premise of not sacrificing the simulation precision, and the time required by simulation is saved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a backtoback double ended MMCHVDC structure;
FIG. 2 is a threephase MMC circuit topology;
FIG. 3 is an equivalent circuit of a submodule during normal operation of the MMC;
FIG. 4 is a Thevenin equivalent circuit of an MMC bridge arm;
FIG. 5 is a MMCHVDC system DC voltage waveform;
FIG. 6 is a comparison of current waveforms for the equivalent model and the detailed model;
FIG. 7 is a comparison of the charging and discharging waveforms of the equivalent model and the detailed model capacitor;
FIG. 8 is the system response under the threephase voltage fault on the AC side;
FIG. 9 is a DC voltage response under a threephase voltage fault on the AC side;
FIG. 10 is a 501 level MMCHVDC simulation waveform.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
As shown in figure 1, the invention aims at a doubleend MMCMTDC system connected back to back, and builds a rapid electromagnetic transient equivalent model capable of simulating multiple working conditions such as normal work, fault, locking, capacitor charge and discharge and the like of MMCHVDC. The MMC inner ring control at two ends is a current inner ring, the outer ring of the converter MMC1 adopts constant direct current voltage control and constant reactive power control, and the outer ring of the converter MMC2 adopts constant active power control and constant reactive power control. And a circulation suppression strategy is added in the control link.
As shown in fig. 2, the MMC converter topology is a threephase sixleg structure, each leg includes a plurality of halfbridge submodules, each halfbridge submodule is composed of two IGBTs and a capacitor, an emitter of the IGBT1 is connected with a collector of the IGBT2, a positive electrode of the capacitor is connected with the collector of the IGBT1, and a negative electrode of the capacitor is connected with the emitter of the IGBT 2.
The halfbridge submodule under normal work carries out Thevenin equivalence, the resistance value is expressed by a switching function during operation, and the switching tube equivalence is a switching resistor R_{1}Or R_{2}The capacitor is equivalent to a controlled voltage source, as shown in fig. 3. Submodule operating parameters are determined, including switching functions and switching resistance values. In particular, the switching function S_{pi}1, switch resistance R_{1}Is a value R close to 0_{ON}When the upper bridge arm submodule is cut off, the switching function S_{pi}0, switch resistance R_{1}A resistance value R of one megaohm_{OFF}，R_{2}The opposite is true.
The submodule equivalent circuit can be further equivalent to a controlled voltage source and a resistor in series connection, and the equivalent controlled voltage v under the normal operation condition_{peqi1}And an equivalent resistance R_{eqi}Can be expressed as:
wherein v is_{pci1}And (t) is the submodule capacitor voltage in normal operation.
And (3) considering an equivalent circuit of a starting link to obtain the expression of the port voltage of the submodule in the starting link:
wherein the sign function
v_{pci2}(t) as a startup link submoduleAnd (4) capacitance voltage.
The expression of the submodule port voltage of the integrated system in a normal operation state and a starting link is considered, and the expression of the submodule port voltage of the starting link can be uniformly expressed as follows:
the blk indicates whether the system is locked, and when the system is normally operated, blk is 1, and when the system is locked, blk is 0.
A plurality of submodules in the bridge arm are connected in series to form a bridge arm equivalent circuit, so as to obtain an equivalent model of the bridge arm, and the equivalent result of the bridge arm is shown in fig. 4. Voltage equivalent value v of upper bridge arm equivalent circuit_{p}Comprises the following steps:
the modeling method is applied to MMC equivalent modeling, a 201level MMC circuit detailed model is built in PSCAD, the 201level MMC circuit detailed model is built by the method, the 201level MMC circuit detailed model and the 201level MMC circuit detailed model are simulated under the same working condition, and a comparison graph of simulation results is shown in FIGS. 59, wherein blue waveforms represent waveform curves in the detailed model, and red waveforms represent waveform curves in the equivalent model.
Fig. 5 is a dc voltage waveform of an MMCHVDC system, where fig. 5(a) and 5(b) reflect the process from startup to stabilization of dc voltages on the rectifying side and the inverting side of an equivalent model and a detailed model, and 0s0.3s is a system startup process, during which the overlap ratio of the detailed dc voltage waveform and the startup waveform of the equivalent model is high, which fully illustrates the effectiveness of the improved model startup link design established herein. Fig. 6(a) and 6(b) are respectively a comparison of alternating current waveforms of the rectification side and the inversion side of the equivalent model and the detailed model, and the amplitude and the phase angle of the two are consistent under the condition of stable operation of the system, and the waveform error is small. The equivalent model can reflect the current response condition of the MMCHVDC flexible direct current transmission system. Fig. 7 shows the capacitance voltage waveforms of the first submodule of the upper bridge arm of the phase a in the detailed model and the equivalent model, which can better reflect the chargedischarge process of the submodule capacitor and fully verify the accuracy of the static response of the model. 8(a) and 8(b) are response waveforms of system alternating voltage and alternating current under the alternatingcurrent side threephase voltage fault respectively, and FIG. 9 shows directcurrent voltage response under the alternatingcurrent side threephase voltage fault, and it is verified that the improved model can also be used for simulation of alternatingcurrent fault response of an MMCHVDC system.
As can be seen from the comparison graphs, the equivalent model has higher matching degree with the detailed model, and the equivalent modeling method can embody the steadystate and dynamic characteristics of the MMC circuit and better equate the operating characteristics of the MMC circuit. And compared with a detailed model, the running time of the equivalent model is greatly shortened, and the requirement on the computing power of hardware equipment is also reduced. Due to the limitation of a computer memory, the detailed model cannot simulate the working condition of 501 levels, and an equivalent model can be used for simulation. The steadystate simulation of the 501 level equivalent model takes 3min19s in a model with the length of 2s and the step size of 50 mus, and the detailed model takes several days and is difficult to perform. Fig. 10 shows waveforms of a 501 level MMCHVDC simulation model, where fig. 10(a) is the MMC1 dcside voltage, fig. 10(b) is the MMC2 dcside voltage, fig. 10(c) is the MMC1 ac current, and fig. 10(d) is the MMC2 ac current.
The invention provides an MMC equivalent modeling method considering various working conditions, which is used for uniformly expressing MMC submodule voltages under various working conditions of starting, running and locking, establishing an equivalent circuit model suitable for various working conditions, performing rapid and accurate electromagnetic transient simulation on an MMC, improving the efficiency of simulation running and saving the time required by simulation. The result of the simulation waveform shows the effectiveness of the modeling method.
The above description is only an embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions that can be easily conceived by those skilled in the art within the technical scope of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.
Claims (5)
1. A quick equivalent modeling method of MMC considering a starting link is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps of establishing a rapid electromagnetic transient equivalent model containing multiple working conditions for two doubleend MMCHVDC systems connected in a backtoback mode, wherein the MMC converter topology is a threephase sixbridge arm structure, each bridge arm comprises a plurality of halfbridge submodules, each halfbridge submodule comprises two IGBTs and a capacitor, an emitter of the IGBT1 is connected with a collector of an IGBT2, a positive electrode of the capacitor is connected with a collector of the IGBT1, and a negative electrode of the capacitor is connected with an emitter of the IGBT 2:
1) under a normal working state, carrying out Thevenin equivalence on the halfbridge submodule, and regarding the parallel structure of each IGBT and each diode as a switch resistor;
2) determining the operation parameters of the halfbridge submodule, wherein R1 is the equivalent resistance of IGBT1, IGBT1 is conducted when the submodule is switched in, and R1 is a small resistance R close to 0_{ON}(ii) a When the submodule is cut off, the IGBT1 is turned off, and R1 is an offstate resistor R_{OFF}(ii) a For the equivalent resistor R2 of the IGBT2, in the switching process of the submodule, the switching function of the IGBT2 is opposite to that of the IGBT1, and the resistance value change of the equivalent resistor R2 is also opposite;
3) the equivalent results are sorted to obtain an expression of an equivalent controlled voltage source and an equivalent resistor under a normal working state, wherein the resistance value of the equivalent resistor is determined according to the equivalent principle;
4) similar to the normal working state, considering an equivalent circuit of a starting link, enabling the capacitance voltage of the starting link to be equivalent to a controllable voltage source, when a capacitor is charged, the port voltage of each bridge arm submodule of the MMC is the capacitance voltage of the bridge arm submodule, when current flows through the submodule reversely so that the submodule is in a holding state, the current bypasses the capacitor through a diode, and at the moment, the port voltage of the submodule is 0, so that the expression of the port voltage of the submodule in the starting link is obtained;
5) and integrating the voltage equivalence of the submodule ports in the normal working state and the starting link, and connecting a plurality of submodule equivalent circuits in a single bridge arm in series to obtain a bridge arm equivalent circuit, namely an equivalent model of the MMC bridge arm.
2. The MMC fast equivalent modeling method considering a boot link of claim 1, wherein: the halfbridge submodule circuit in the step 2) is composed of two switch resistors and an equivalent controlled source, the switch resistors are respectively used for replacing switch tubes, the equivalent controlled source is used for replacing a submodule capacitor, and the determination principle of the switch resistors is as follows: switching function S_{pi}1, switch resistance R_{1}Is a value R close to 0_{ON}When the upper bridge arm submodule is cut off, the switching function S_{pi}0, switch resistance R_{1}A resistance value R of one megaohm_{OFF}Switch resistance R_{2}Then, in contrast, the switch resistance is expressed as follows:
3. the MMC fast equivalent modeling method considering a boot link of claim 2, wherein: the halfbridge submodule equivalent circuit is further equivalent to a form of a controlled voltage source and a resistor connected in series, and the equivalent controlled voltage v under the normal operation condition_{peqi1}And an equivalent resistance R_{eqi}Expressed as:
wherein v is_{pci1}And (t) is the submodule capacitor voltage in normal operation.
4. The MMC fast equivalent modeling method considering a boot link of claim 3, wherein: the equivalent circuit of the starting link is considered in the step 4) to obtain the port voltage v of the halfbridge submodule of the starting link_{pi2}(t) is:
wherein the sign functionv_{pci2}And (t) is the capacitor voltage of the submodule in the starting link.
5. The MMC fast equivalent modeling method considering a boot link of claim 4, wherein: the voltage of the MMC submodule port considering the starting link is uniformly expressed as follows:
wherein, blk represents whether the system is locked, when the system normally operates, blk is 1, and when the system is locked, blk is 0;
connecting a plurality of submodules in the bridge arm in series to form a bridge arm equivalent circuit to obtain an equivalent model of the bridge arm, wherein the voltage equivalent value v of the upper bridge arm equivalent circuit_{p}Comprises the following steps:
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